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Feeding meat or wine to children and the age of chinuch for aveilus

Children, even those younger than the age of chinuch, are not permitted to eat meat or drink wine during the Nine Days. Very young children (under the age of three) may eat meat. According to some, children below the age of chiunch can eat poultry and foods containing meat ingredients, since the issur on these is less severe than on beef. What is the age of chinuch for aveilus on the churban? Several opinions are given: Six, nine, or the age when a child begins studying the commentary of Tosfos. A different opinion holds that the ‘age of chinuch on the churban‘ does not apply nowadays.

(ס"ק ע; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 86)

Hilchos Tefillin 32 (page 92)

מאמצע סעיף יז משום דבעינן עד אמצע סעיף יח וריש שעשאה

Chok Tochos on Parts of a Letter

Can a Letter be Formed from Ink That Dripped Onto the Klaf?

The Difference Between a Letter Drawn With One Stroke of the Kolmus and One Drawn With Two Strokes

a857e463-8c1f-435d-9663-145890bc6c7a.jpgChok tochos on parts of a letter

What if a sofer began a letter correctly, made a mistake along the way, and then removed some ink and fixed it? What if a sofer removed ink that dripped on part of a letter and then rewrote it properly? According to some poskim, the final product in these cases would be invalid due to chok tochos. However, according to both the Mechaber and Rama, the focus of the law of chok tochos is on the completion of the letter, and in these cases the letter was completed correctly despite the "erasing" that occurred beforehand.

(ס"ק סז וביה"ל ד"ה ונסתמה)

7ca4f122-1cdf-4c9e-989c-b0f99311c38a.jpgCan a letter be formed from ink that dropped onto klaf?

If ink dripped on a parchment in the form of a partial letter and the sofer then completed it, the halacha would depend on the machlokes above. The Acharonim advocate being stringent in this case because a section was formed without any assistance from the scribe. If ink dripped on the parchment and the sofer used the wet ink to shape a letter it is kosher. The sofer did a proper ‘writing’ and it is unimportant that the process was initiated by dripped ink.

(ס"ק סז)

ef4d90cf-dfc3-474d-9d39-da8596b9c7c1.jpgThe difference between a letter drawn with one stroke of the kolmus and two strokes

According to the Mechaber, if an os was disqualified through ‘overextension’ (e.g. the top of a vav was drawn out so that it looks like a reish) then whatever was written in the problematic stroke of the kolmus ( the entire letter vav in this case) must be removed. However, in the example of a two-stroke letter like a daled, where the top was written with one stroke and the leg was overextended with a second stroke that made it look like a long chaf, only the second stroke (the entire leg) needs to be removed. A second opinion holds that only the problematic section of the stroke must be removed. A third opinion holds that anything that was written after the problem occurred must be replaced.

(סעיף יח, ס"ק עה, וביה"ל ד"ה כל, ד"ה ורי"ש וד"ה יש; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 110)

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  • Chok tochos is when the form of the letter is carved from ink already on the klaf. In other words, the action is done to the surrounding material and not to the actual os. Such lettering is invalid for stam and many other areas of halacha.
  • According to some poskim, if a beis was originally formed correctly and later distorted by a drop of ink, restoring it by scratching away the ink is only pasul mid’rabonon because the main body of the os had been drawn correctly. Other poskim regard this as chok tochos d’oraisa.
  • If something has already been written on the klaf, writing over it does not constitute new writing. The top writing is nullified to — and does not take the place of — the original writing, even if it is of a higher quality.
  • Repairing osios that touch
  • Repairing touching osios that have deformed
  • Repairing the letters of Hashem’s name
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