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Hilchos Tefillin 33 (page 117)

מאמצע סעיף ב ויכוון בהנחתם עד אמצע הסעיף לא יוכל

Is Intention Required for Ba’al Tosif?

Ways of Violating Ba’al Tosif

When is Fulfilling the Opinions of Both Rashi and Rabbenu Tam in Violation of Ba’al Tosif and When Not?

ca2860b1-d238-4aac-9664-4a1b497e0b3f.jpgIs intention required for violating ba’al tosif?

It is forbidden to add mitzvos to the Torah, as it says: "You shall preserve all I have commanded you; do not add to it." According to some poskim, if someone added a forbidden feature to a mitzva without intending to fulfill the mitzva with the addition, the question of whether this is a violation of ba’al tosif depends on the general issue of whether intent is required to fulfill or violate a mitzva. Others hold that even if mitzvos in general require intention, ba’al tosif is violated even without intention to fulfill a mitzva. (If there was clear intention for something other than a mitzva, ba’al tosif is not violated.) This discussion is limited to actions that take place during the designated time for the mitzva (e.g. arba minim on Sukkos), but if the action takes place outside of the designated time then all agree that ba’al tosif requires intent.

(ביה"ל ד"ה ויכון וד"ה בעלמא)

b7facd6a-a0d5-4d3d-b8e3-dfe523b6fcb7.jpgWays of violating ba’al tosif

One method of violating ba’al tosif is to add a component to a mitzva object. Examples include adding an extra species to the four minim of Sukkos or an extra string to the tzitzis. It doesn’t matter whether one is adding an additional mitzva component (e.g. a second esrog) or an unrelated object (e.g. an apple), or whether these components are attached to the original mitzva item or not. There are three opinions about how to apply these rules. According to one opinion, attaching a component to the original item is forbidden mid’oraisa, and using it without attaching it is forbidden mid’rabonon. A second opinion holds that if the new item is the same species as the original, the prohibition is mid’oraisa even when it is not attached. If it is a different species and not attached, it is forbidden only mid’rabonon. The third opinion holds that any form of addition is forbidden mid’oraisa. Although the Mishna Berura mentions all of these opinions, he sides with the middle one.

(ס"ק ז-ח, שעה"צ ס"ק ח, וביה"ל ד"ה ויכון וד"ה בעלמא; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 5 ו־10)

f26059a1-a02a-441a-a67a-f9b1aff59e60.jpgWhen is fulfilling the opinions of both Rashi and Rabbenu Tam in violation of ba’al tosif and when not?

By now we have learned that: 1) it is forbidden mid’oraisa to wear two pairs of tefillin at the same time, 2) when wearing two types of tefillin together, with one being kosher and one not (as in the case of Rashi and Rabbeinu Tam), a person must intend to fulfill the mitzva only with the kosher tefillin, 3) placing two sets of parshios (Rashi and Rabbeinu Tam) in each bayis is assur mid’oraisa, and 4) adding an extra compartment to the shel rosh (even without glue; just by tying it) is forbidden mid’oraisa. (According to the Mishna Berura, this is true even without intent to add to the mitzva.)

(ס"ק ז-ח, שעה"צ ס"ק ח, וביה"ל ד"ה ויכון וד"ה בעלמא; ביאורים ומוספים דרשו, 5 ו־10)

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  • According to Rashi and the Rambam, the order of the parshios of tefillin from the viewer’s right is Kadesh, V’haya ki yeviacha, Shema and V’haya im shemoa. According to Rabbenu Tam, the order is Kadesh, V’haya ki yeviacha, V’haya im shemoa and Shema.
  • Many Rishonim side with Rashi and many others with Rabbeinu Tam. Many Acharonim– including the Beis Yosef and the Gra– pasken like Rashi, and this is the longstanding popular custom. There is an opinion cited in Shulchan Aruch and the Arizal which encourages scrupulous people to wear both types of tefillin.
  • According to the Arizal, both tefillin should be worn together. In order that both tefillin will be donned soon after the beracha, they should be tightened simultaneously.
  • Who should Wear Rabbeinu Tam Tefillin?
  • At Which Point in Davening Should the Rabbeinu Tam be Put On?
  • Violating Ba’al Tigra with an Extra Pair of Tefillin
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